DNS request: When searching on google the first thing that happens is it takes your URL request and turns it into the IP address (for example we can use 8.8. 8.8). It then checks different places to find this IP the fastest way possible. If you want to go more in-depth about how it works you can read this really cool comic someone made here.
TCP/IP: This is an Internet protocol suite that helps with specifying if the data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed, and received. To read up more about it you can do so here
Firewall: When reaching the firewall it will check if you are able to access a said webpage that you are going to. If the incoming user does not pass the firewall rules then they will be denied to access the site. Otherwise, they are able to go onto the site as normal and browse.
HTTPS/SSL: This is a security layer of going to a web page that establishes a secure connection between the computer and the web page. This way it is safe for the user to send private/important information without worry.
Load Balancer: When you have a popular website your web server may not be able to handle all the traffic coming in this is where a load balancer is handy you are able to split the load between 2 different servers but display the exact same website. It uses an equation to split users between the 2 different servers so that each of their resources is being equally used.
Web Server: This is where your website is being hosted from and where the users are connecting to. All of your front-end code will be displayed here.
Application Server: This hosts the web applications on your site. This runs in the background applications for your website.
Database: This is where all of the information is being stored from your website. It can be stored in many different ways but usually, it is by the users name.